Brief Identification Edit

Athena-Schale Hildesheimer Silberfund

The Minerva Bowl was discovered with the Hildesheim Treasure[1] in Hildesheim, Germany[2]. The exquisite silver bowl features a raised-relief image of the Minerva, whom the Romans worshipped as the goodness of handicrafts and arts. The bowl measures 25 cm in diameter and 7.1 cm in depth now resides in the Altes Museum of Berlin, Germany.

Technical Evaluation Edit

Local Historical Context Edit

Minerva is likely of Etruscan origin, a civilization that last from 625-509 BCE in Etruria (now Tuscany) and Rome. Minerva was adapted by the Roman Republic after overthrowing the Etruscans around 509 BCE, along with two other major Etruscan gods— Tinia and Uni. Moreover, much of the characteristics of the Roman Empire can be traced back to the Etruscan culture.

The Etruscans traded across the ancient world and grew successful on the natural resources of Etruria, which included copper, tin, zinc, lead, and iron. The surplus of wealth allowed the Etruscans to rapidly propel agricultural villages into major cities. They lived in luxury and leisure, occupying their time with much recreational activities such as gladiator duels, which is believed to have first sparked Roman’s keen of gladiator. The Etruscans sought pleasure in the most elaborate of feasts involving fine foods, dances, and musicians. The Romans would later follow and surpass the Etruscans’ success. The Minerva Bowl was likely used by the Romans in similar elaborate feasts.

World-Historic Context Edit

The Minerva Bowl was unearthed in Hildesheim, Germany. The Romans came in contact with the Germanic and Celtic tribes as they migrated from the north and east from 2nd century BC to 5th century AD.

Bibliography Edit

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(2013). Minerva. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, page 1.

(2014a). Etruscan civilization. Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, page 1p. 1.

(2014b). Germany. Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, page 1p. 1.

(2014c). Hildesheim. Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, page 1p. 1.

(2014d). Rome. Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, page 1p. 1.

Cameron, A. (1992). Observations on the distribution and ownership of late roman silver plate. Journal of Roman Archaeology, 5:178-185.

Guzzo, P. G. (2003). A group of hellenistic silver objects in the metropolitan museum. Metropolitan Museum Journal, 38:pp. 8+45-94.

Halfond, I. (2014). Etruscan civilization in rome. Salem Press Encyclopedia.

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Kennedy-Quigley, S. (2001). Visual representations of the birth of athena/menrva: A comparative study. Etruscan Studies, 8(1):5.

Mercadal, Trudy, P. (2015). Roman republic. Salem Press Encyclopedia.

Urbanus, J. (2015). Rome's imperial port. Archaeology, 68(2):26-33

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